Washington County, if she could have controlled Arkansas, would, no doubt, have dotted the State with schools and colleges; as it was she was among the first counties to encourage the proper use of the great United States land grants for public institutions of learning. It was not because there were not large grants made to the commonwealth that the public-school movement languished until 1868, for with the “16th section” grant, “the 72 sections seminary land grant,” the 640,000 acres, and “the swamp lands grant” of September 28, 1850, there were from nine to eleven millions of acres of school lands at the disposal of the commonwealth for the education of its children; and some of this, too, as early as “the forties.”
Every State has its periods of fraudulent administration, but in no part of the history of Arkansas has fraud and plunder been more rife than in the early administration of the most precious of its funds and resources, the school funds and lands. The lands were sacrificed at 50 and 75 cents an acre, and even then the funds were misappropriated and misloaned, until the statutes teemed with acts to suppress the evil. The office of county school commissioners was established in the hope that evils of caring for the fund might be lessened, and so the situation continued until 1868.
Washington County suffered with the rest of the State, as far as the fund was concerned, but her settlers and pioneers, like their forefathers from the “old world,” brought their schools and churches along with them, and welcomed others, who were pioneer planters of such institutions. Many parents taught their own children, and then sent them to other States. Some lady or gentleman would take a few boys and girls of the neighborhood to his or her own home and hold a “subscription school.” But the poorer people and the colored race had not even these advantages. There is no certain information as to the first teacher in the county. A Mrs. Hoge held one of the earliest private schools, in her home near Evergreen Cemetery, at Fayetteville. (Governor) Isaac Murphy was also a teacher at the county seat in the latter part of “the thirties.” His was a mixed school. A Dr. Sanders was one of the earliest pedagogues there also. Mr. and Mrs. Dickson were among the number about the year 1840. In the region of Springdale probably “Uncle Joe” Holcomb taught the first schools, as early as 1844; he was followed in 1845 by “Tom” Cannon; Harvey Adams covered the time to 1850, when Miss Jennie Mills took up the birch for the two years following; D. A. White in 1853, George Hancock in 1854, and Charles Wildes covered the most of the period before the war. “Abe” Whaley and a Mr. Allbright were among those after the war.
The Far West Seminary
This institution was intended to be the first college in Arkansas, and some place its earliest beginnings, before 1835, in a brick church at Mount Comfort. In 1843 its board of visitors included Rev. C. Washbourne, G. W. Paschal, A. W. Arrington, Robert W. Mecklin and Isaac Strain, who published in the Arkansas Intelligencer a three-column article on the purposes of the institution. Rev. Washbourne was sent east to solicit aid for it, and great exertions were made to get it firmly on foot. It was incorporated in 1844then the only college in Arkansas, and Ozark Institute was to become a preparatory school. Good buildings were started, but on February 27, 1845, the still unfinished structures were burned, causing a loss of from $12,000 to $13,000. This seemed to be the death-blow to the enterprise. Rev. Robert W. Mecklin was among its principals, and Col. J. P. Neal, of Prairie Grove, was one of the many young men who attended it. It was suspected of being a political move, for some reason, and that, no doubt, had much to do with the lack of encouragement extended to it.
Cane Hill Schools
Cane Hill was settled in the main by educated Christian people, and it early became distinguished for its churches and schools. Both were established as soon as the first settlers had located their land, and secured shelter for themselves and families. At first one school supplied the youth for several miles around with instruction, but as the settlements became more numerous better educational facilities were demanded. On October 28, 1834, a meeting of the Cumberland Presbyterians, of Washington County, was held in the Cane Hill meetinghouse for the purpose of taking the necessary steps to establish a school. Rev. Samuel King was called to the chair, and presided over the deliberations. A board of trust was chosen, and the Rev. B. H. Pierson, D. D., was elected president and Ezra Wilson clerk. This school was opened in April, 1835, and was probably kept up in some form until the founding of Cane Hill College.
The Fayetteville Female Seminary
In 1839 this institution was founded by Miss Sophia Sawyer. This lady had left her New England home to become a missionary to the Cherokee Indians in Tennessee, and on their removal to the Indian Territory she followed them, in company with the Ridge family. Indian troubles led to her locating at Fayetteville, whither she brought fourteen young Cherokee girls, daughters of prominent Cherokee families. Among these maidens were four who bore the names Susan Drew, Amanda Drew, Maggie Harper and Julia Rogers. She opened her school near the present residence of Stephen K. Stone, and in time had an assistant, a Miss James (afterward Mrs. Marshall), and later on Miss Lucretia Foster and Miss Mary T. Daniels. Rev. C. Washbourne at one time was instructor in literature. Two Misses Freyschlag also assisted at one time. In about 1854 Miss Lucretia Foster became principal, and in 1859 the institution was incorporated. A neat catalogue, issued for 1859-60, gives the following faculty: Mrs. Lucretia Foster Smith, principal; Miss Mary T. Daniels, associate; Miss Annis C. Feemster, teacher in primary department; Madame Marie Janssen, teacher in French and embroidery; Mr. F. F. Zellner, professor of music. The whole number in all departments was 103; number in music, twenty-four; number in embroidery, thirty. The students were largely from Fayetteville, but some were from such distant points as Salem, Tenn. The first year of the war, however, closed this institution, but not before the first class received its diplomas. Elizabeth F. Massie, of Fayetteville, and Cener Boone, of Bedford County, Tenn., constituted the class.
A Baptist College
In 1872 there was organized at Springdale a Missionary Baptist College by the Rev. Barnes, and in the following year it was incorporated. It was under the control of three teachers, and held in a fine two-story brick edifice that rivals the public school building of the town. For some reason the school did not prosper, and in April, 1885, it was bought by the Lutheran Church, and converted into a parochial high-school for a colony of that faith in and to the west of Springdale, and now goes under the name “Lutheran College.” Two instructors, Rev. A. S. Bartholomew and Rev. I. E. Rader, have been in charge ever since the new organization, and their enrollment often reaches eighty in number.
Elm Springs Academy
In January, 1887, Rev. W. W. Lundy, a graduate of Hiwassee College, East Tennessee, leased the school property at Elm Springs, and established “Elm Springs Academy for Males and Females.” The first year sixty-five students were enrolled, and in 1888 the enrollment reached 103 pupils. The school offers scientific, commercial, normal and classical instruction, under the able direction of Rev. Lundy and his assistant, Miss Jessie Gotcher.
The period from 1861 to 1867 may be considered practically a blank in the educational history of Washington County. During active hostilities the preservation of life was about all that the harassed mothers, left to care for their families as best they might, could do; and when reconstruction began, the broken up families, who looked round on devastated fields, burned homes, villages and towns, the ruins of everything that had been the fruits of years of labor and care, with scarcely anything to turn to except their orchards and the bare fields, found their situation almost as though they had come as penniless pioneers to a new country, and it needed some time for them to recuperate their exhausted energies and finances. Then, too, the situation had changed; the slaves were free; they were to be a part of the population; free schools were being agitated; the finances of the people and the State were in a lamentable condition; and for many reasons the free school idea did not become suddenly popular; there was still the tendency to cling to the private schools; the school funds from the public lands, so far as sold, were all gone; the State began taking means to secure what could be recovered; and soon a plan of free common schools was presented to the Legislature.
Common Schools of Washington County, Arkansas
On July 23, 1868, was approved an act of the State Legislature, entitled “An Act to establish and maintain a system of Free Common Schools for the State of Arkansas.” The act begins:
Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Arkansas:
SECTION 1. That the proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may be granted by the United States to this State, and not otherwise appropriated by the United States or this State; also all (moneys) stocks. bonds, lands, and other property, now belonging to any fund for purposes of education; also the net proceeds of all sales of lands and other property and effects that may accrue to this State by escheat, or from sale of estrays, or from unclaimed dividends or distributive shares of the estates of deceased persons, or from fines, penalties, or forfeitures; also any sales of the public lands which may have been or may be hereafter paid over to the State (Congress consenting); also all the grants, gifts, or devises that have been or may be hereafter made to this State, and not otherwise appropriated by the tenure of the grant, gift, or devise, shall be securely invested and sacredly preserved as a public-school fund, that shall be designated as the “Common-School Fund” of the State, and which shall be the common property of the State.
SECTION 2. That the annual income from the said fund, together with one dollar per capita, to be annually assessed on every male inhabitant over the age of twenty-one (21) years, and so much of the ordinary annual revenues of the State as may hereafter be set apart by law for such purposes, shall be faithfully appropriated for maintaining a system of “Free Common Schools” for this State, and shall be applied to no other purposes whatsoever, than to the payment of teachers’ wages and the salaries of the circuit superintendents of public instruction.
The act provided that the governor, secretary of State and its created head, the superintendent of public instruction, should be the commissioners of the fund; that every county should be divided into school districts, with a trustee as the district officer; that each judicial district should constitute a school circuit, over which a “Circuit Superintendent of Public Instruction” should have supervision, these officers being appointed by the governor; and that among other duties these superintendents should license teachers, hold county teachers’ institutes, visit schools, arrange district apportionment of funds, etc. The salary of these officers was to be $3,000 and office expenses; thus is seen the importance attached to the office. As an interesting feature of reconstruction days, the act provides for the following “Teacher’s Oath:” “I do solemnly swear (or affirm), that I will honestly and faithfully support the Constitution and laws of the United States, and the Constitution and laws of the State of Arkansas, and that I will encourage all other persons so to do. That I will never countenance or aid in the secession of this State from the United States; that I will endeavor to inculcate in the minds of youth sentiments of patriotism and loyalty, and will fully, faithfully and impartially perform the duties of the office of teacher according to the best of my ability; so help me God.”
This act was amended April 12, 1869, to provide for certain district contingencies, and the sale and transfer of lands. On February 4 of the same year it was also amended to adapt the system to the peculiar needs of cities and towns, making them a special school district.
Dr. Thomas Smith was the first State superintendent of public instruction, and under him was W. B. Henderson, the circuit superintendent of public instruction over the districts of which Washington County is a part. Under Supt. Smith about 2,500 schools were organized throughout the State, and Washington County had her share.
Other Educational Matters
From time to time the public school laws have been changed and amended, but the greatest change was made about 1875, after the change of administration in State affairs. An effort was made to abolish the supervision system, including the offices of State and circuit superintendents, and replacing the latter by throwing their duties on the county judge and county examiners, and substituting a district board of three directors for the trustee. J. L. Denton, then State superintendent, and ex-officio receiver of the George Peabody fund, on the prospect of the success of the anti-supervision element, telegraphed the manager, J. P. Curry, who at once went to Little Rock, and urged upon the Legislature the retention at least of the office of State superintendent. The great indebtedness of the State made this seem necessary, but it was a vital blow against the public-school system. Whatever the cause, however, the retrenching process cut out all supervision except the office of State superintendent. Aside from the poll-tax and other funds, a State tax of 2 mills is a source of revenue, and an optional district tax of 5 mills for districts who will vote it.
To trace out the statistical growth of the common-school system in Washington County is impossible, on account of the lack of records, and the absence of reports where records have been kept. The State superintendent’s reports to the governor, excellent as they otherwise are, are thus rendered practically worthless as far as this feature is concerned. Both the State superintendent and county examiner lament the fact, and point to that as an argument for supervision of county work.
The report of June 30, 1881, shows the enrollment in Washington County to be: White, 8,292; colored, 342; increase, 216. Those pursuing studies to be: Reading, 1,222; orthography, 1,706; penmanship, 309; mental arithmetic, 410; written arithmetic, 610; English grammar, 337; geography, 259; history, 100; higher branches, 37; whole number taught, 2,354; whole number last year, 3,396.
The report of 1882, when there were 121 districts, but thirty-five districts reported, showing the number enrolled to be: White, 2,330 (the enumeration being 9,158); colored, 84 (the enumeration being 325 and the increase 849). Those pursuing studies to be: Reading, 1,274; orthography, 1,444; mental arithmetic, 356; written arithmetic, 549; English grammar, 156; geography, 152; history, 141; higher branches, 35.
For June 30, 1881, the number of teachers are given as: Male, 39; female, 7; with first grade certificate, 32; with second grade certificate, 13; with third grade certificate, 1. The average wages of first grade males, $33.66; first grade females, $48.33; second grade males, $20.71; total paid out, $7,781.39.
For June 30, 1882, the number of teachers given are: White males, 33; colored males, 2; white females, 7; average monthly salaries for males of first grade, $33.11; first grade females, $23.24; second grade males, $25.09; third grade males, $20.62.
June 30, 1881, number of buildings erected during the year, two of wood, costing $611.30; number erected previously, eighty of wood, costing $20,650; total valuation, $21,261.30; number of districts reporting, two.
June 30, 1882, eleven districts only reported.
The receipts and expenditures of the public-school fund in Washington County, as given June 30, 1881, is as follows: Received from all sources, $17,171.34; expended for all purposes, $7,781.39; amount unexpended, $9,389.95. As given June 30, 1882: Received from all sources, $14,615.55; expended for all purposes, $10,990.81; amount unexpended, $3,624.74.
In 1883 the enumeration was: White, 9,732; colored, 382; increase, 631; number of districts, 130; number reporting, 53; enrollment, white, 3,328; colored, 104; total, 3,432; pursuing, orthography, 2,254; reading, 2,050; mental arithmetic, 607; written arithmetic, 980; English grammar, 373; geography, 510; history, 163; higher branches, 15; penmanship, 926.
In 1884 the county examiner reports: Enumeration, 10,785; enrollment, 2,926; number of districts, 135; number of districts reporting enrollment, 53; number of teachers employed, 56; the county treasurer reports amount on hand July 1, 1883, $5,424.26; from common-school fund, $6,097.57; district tax, $1,702.17; poll tax, $3,954.24; other sources, $652.05; total, $17,830.29; amount expended, $12,254.72; balance on hand June 30, 1884, $5,775.57.
(In 1884) number of districts, 135; number reporting, 43; enrollment, white, 2,957; colored, 5; total, 2,962; pursuing orthography, 2,266; reading, 1,870; mental arithmetic, 835; written arithmetic, 901; English grammar, 436; geography, 408; penmanship, 548; history, 219; higher arithmetic, 11.
In 1883 the number of teachers reported are: Male, 47; female, 9; total, 56; average monthly salaries of first grade males, $32.55; first grade females, $26.66; second grade males, $28.75; third grade females, $20.00.
In 1884 the number of teachers reported are: Males, 35; females, 21; total, 56; average monthly salary first grade males, $33.00; females, $27.20; second grade males, $29.41; females, $22.50; third grade males, $22.50.
In 1883 Washington County reports twelve wooden school-houses, erected at a cost of $22.58; whole number, 123, valued at $24,600; and in 1884 reports three wooden buildings, constructed at a cost of $379; and the whole number reported are but eleven buildings, valued at $1,297.
In 1883 the school fund received was: Amount on hand June 30, 1882, $3,642.61; from common-school fund, $4,757.33; from district tax, $3,162.11; from poll tax, $3,583.79; from other sources, $101; total, $15,246.75; and in 1884, amount on hand June 30, 1883, $5,424.26; common-school fund, $6,097.57; district fund, $1,702.17; poll tax, $3,954.24; from sixteenth section sales or leases, $328.20; other sources, $323.85; total, $17,830.29.
Expenditures for 1883, teachers’ salaries, $9,390.42; treasurer’s commissions, $232.07; total, $9,822.49; amount unexpended, common-school fund, $4,214.46; district fund, $1,209.80; total, $5,424.26; and for 1884, teachers’ salaries, $11,834.10; building repairing, $216.64; treasurer’s commissions, $203.98; total, $12,254.72; amount unexpended, common school fund, $828.14; district fund, $3,125.03; funds from all other sources, $1,622.40; total, $5,575.57.
Of the $2,800 received by the State from the Peabody Educational Fund in 1883, all but $150 was expended, and the only direct aid received by Washington County was her share of $1,300 applied to the district normal institutes, one of which, in 1884, was held within her borders, at Springdale. In the latter year, of $2,000 received, all but $667.10 was expended for these institutes, as directed by the general agent of the fund. In addition to the above Washington County students have the privilege of competing for the eight Peabody scholarships in the State Normal College at Nashville, Tenn., each scholarship allowing $200 per annum for the expenses of its holder in the above college.
In his report for 1883 and 1884 the State superintendent showed the great need for revision of the school law in almost every department, but especially in regard to county supervision and school districting, and to provide free text books. He also states the condition of the permanent school fund, whose interest only is used as follows: Loughborough bonds, 6 per cent., $170,000; auditor’s certificates of 1883, $270.91; reclamation certificates, $76.00; total, $170,346.91.
The fact is also mentioned of the loss of funds by fire in 1874 and 1879 to aggregate (with interest) over $300,000, and the replacement of this is urged.
In the report for 1885 and 1886 the State superintendent, Hon. W. E. Thompson, again urges county supervision in a masterly manner, and no doubt the public sentiment will soon demand it as the greatest need of her public-school system. His report shows a general advance in the schools of the State, and in public sentiment in regard thereto, which has no doubt been largely fostered by the district normal institutes, which are supported by the Peabody Fund. This fund is reported as follows: To balance on hand November 1, 1884, $667.10; to normal institutes in 1885, $1,500; total amount for 1885, $2,167.10; by amount expended for institutes in 1885, $1,087.90; to balance on hand January, 1886, $1,079.20; to amount received for public schools in 1886, $1,800; to amount for institutes in 1886, $1,500; total amount, $4,370.20; by amount expended for institute work, $1,678.75; balance on hand December, 1886, $2,700.45.
Two more scholarships in the Nashville State Normal College were given to the State.
September 30, 1886, the permanent school fund was as follows: Currency, $174,554.33; State scrip, $652.02; reclamation certificates, $76; refunding certificates, $100; total, $175,382.35.
The report for Washington County June 30, 1885, is: Amount received from common-school fund, State, $14,690.05; district tax, $11,262.12; poll tax, $4,307; other sources, $361; total, $30,620.17. Amount expended for teachers’ salaries, $7,670.32; building and repairs, $1,493.32; treasurer’s commissions, $222.79; total, 9,386.43. Balance unexpended of common-school fund, $7,640.73; district fund, $10,641.12; other sources, $2,951.89; total, $21,233.74. Enumeration, white, 9,947; colored, 227; total, 10,913; enrollment, white, 3,016; number of districts, 134; number reporting enrollment, 40; number districts voting tax, 4; number teachers employed, 50; number school-houses, 11; value of school-houses, $3,305; number of institutes held, 3.
The county’s report for June 30, 1886, is as follows: Balance on hand June 30, 1885, $21,233.74; common-school fund, State, $8,056.40; district tax, $7,483.10; poll tax, $4,685.60; other sources, $500; total, $41,958.84. Amount expended for teachers’ salaries, $15,301.57; building and repairs, $10,157.94; treasurer’s commission, $414.48; other purposes, $279.76; total, $26,153.75. Balance unexpended common-school fund, $4,143.04; balance unexpended district fund, $6,580.16; balance of fund from other sources, $5,081.89; total, $15,805.09. The enumeration, white, 11,286; colored, 438; total, 11,724; enrollment, white, 2,946; number of districts, 150; number reporting enrollment, 104; number voting tax, 38; number of teachers employed, 114; number of school-houses, 80; value of school-houses, $26,177.29; number of institutes held, 4.
The county examiner’s report for 1888 gives total white enumeration, 12,800; total colored, 430; grand total, 13,230; total white enrollment, 6,965; colored, 201; grand total, 7,166; average male daily attendance, 1,871; female, 2,443; total, 4,314; whole number of teachers, 124; amount paid teachers, $16,043.42; number of schools taught, 116; number of days schools were taught, 8,474; visits of directors, 345; amount of taxes levied for schools, $12,514.04; number of school-houses erected during the year, 10; cost of same, $2,200; whole number of school-houses in county, 84; total value of same, $35,782; value of all other property belonging to districts, $2,213; receipts for the year, $23,742.95; expenditures for the year, $18,516.60; balance, $5,237.57; number of districts voting tax, 75; total number of districts in county, 164; number of institutes held during year, 2; teachers attending same, 60; number of children deaf, blind, insane, etc., 7.
The public-school system has kept pace with the rapid growth of the county since the advent of the “Frisco Railway,” and has made greater progress in the last semi-decade than in any twenty years previously. The growth in the attendance of three institutes held in the county since 1886, is significant; the first, at West Fork, had only seventeen in attendance, the second numbered eighty, and the last, at Fayetteville, had an attendance of 125. In September, 1887, a Directors’ Annual Meeting was organized, which is expected to be an influential agent in the improvement of district management.
Among a large number who might be mentioned as active in the promotion of public-school interests in various parts of the county are Prof. E. H. Howell, Judge L. Gregg and Col. Thomas Hunt, of Fayetteville; William Mitchell, of Prairie Grove; County Examiner C. H. Inman, of Springdale; H. P. Sloan, of Pitkin; William Mayes, of Johnson; Dr. B. F. Williams, of McGuire’s Station, et al.
It is but natural that Fayetteville, which had long had such excellent private seminaries and colleges, should be loth to exchange them for the undeveloped public schools, which, for some time, were considered not unlike schools for paupers. It was organized under Circuit Supt. E. E. Henderson as District No. 1, with J. Q. Benbrook as trustee, and schools with not to exceed three teachers, including those for colored schools. Among the various buildings rented from year to year were the Masonic Hall, the old Female Seminary, the Methodist, Baptist and Christian Churches. Under the corporation school law Fayetteville was made a special district, and March 20, 1871, the following school board met: J. C. Massie, J. Q. Benbrook, H. C. C. Botefuhr, Thomas D. Boles, D. D. Stark and Charles L. McClung. Mrs. Smith then had charge of the white schools, and Miss Dora Ford and a Miss Mannels taught the colored students, under the care of the American Missionary Society.
No school building was erected by the city until their present edifice was built, in 1885, under the direction of the following board: L. Gregg, president; B. H. Stone, O. C. Gray, E. B. Harrison, J. T. Reynolds and another. The board made the following report September 1, 1885:
“We report that for the last school year the district voted a five-mill tax for building purposes, and for this year a five-mill tax for all teaching purposes.”
The directors drew from the county treasury for building purposes during the year $2,468.63 from the State; from the common-school fund, $1,120; the amount received from other sources was an accumulation from previous years in the treasury.
We report one school-house built during the year. Its foundation is stone; its walls, brick; its roof, iron; contains two large halls and six good class rooms; materials and finish, good; location, on an eminence in a seven-acre lot; cost of building and grounds about $9,131.55, and the grounds unenclosed; amount in the treasury, in State scrip, $557.03.
One school building was erected for colored children in the city several years ago, of stone foundation, brick walls, and wooden roof, by the American Missionary Association and by individual contribution; it will accommodate about eighty or 100 pupils; the grounds (donated) and the house are worth about $2,500 to $3,000. The school board paid $150 to a colored teacher for the colored schools this year.
The following enumeration was reported: White, 602; colored, 139; total, 741.
The school building was rented to private teachers on its completion, on account of lack of funds; but the following year the public schools opened in full force, and have made rapid advancement.
In 1886-87 the first public school was held in the new building, under the following corps of teachers: Superintendent, Col. O. C. Gray; assistants, Miss Ella Carnall, Mrs. F. L. Sutton, Miss Anna Putman, Miss Jessie Cravens, Mrs. Alice Adams and Mrs. M. W. Alex.
The school graduated its first class of three pupils in 1888, and starts out for the coming year with the following corps of teachers: Superintendent, A. S. Stultz, a graduate of the Cook County Normal School, under the famous educator, Col. Parker; assistants, Miss Anna Putman, Miss Jessie Cravens, Mrs. Annie Stapp, Miss Mollie Dickson, Miss Mattie Ralston, Miss Mary Leverett and Miss Lena Rhodes, most of whom are graduates of the Arkansas Industrial University. Their curriculum is of a high-school grade, enabling its graduates to enter the A. I. U. The principal of the colored school is A. L. Richardson, and his assistant is W. J. Kidd.
The financial report of the school board for June 1, 1888, is: Total receipts, $6,394.41; total expenditures, $4,206.11; amount on hand, $2,188.20.
Among the earliest teachers at West Fork were Prof. Thomason and H. Lafferson. A log building was long used as an ordinary district school. In 1886 the growth of the town led to the erection of a special building of two stories. It is a neat frame, 36×40 feet, situated in the west part of town. G. S. White and the present incumbent have been the teachers in the new building.
In 1885 the Springdale district erected a fine two-story brick edifice, containing four rooms. Before this date, and even until 1888, private schools seemed to have a strong hold on the people. The first private school was in the old Baptist Church, a three-months’ school “after corn was laid by,” in which “Readin’, Ritin’, Rithmetic and Spellin'” were conned over. The date of the first is uncertain, but the old church answered this pedagogic purpose until the “fall of Sumter.” The first public-school building was a frame, built about 1868-69. That built in 1885 is 40×70 feet, and is an ornament to the town. Three teachers, Principal J. W. Coltrane, assisted by M. W. Davis and H. M. Grenade, have charge of about 150 pupils. Principal Coltrane has been in charge since the erection of the building, which, like the house at West Fork, is a special district building. Other places in the county are ordinary members of the public-school system.
Back to: Washington County, Arkansas History
Source: History of Benton, Washington, Carroll, Madison, Crawford, Franklin, and Sebastian Counties, Arkansas. Chicago, IL, USA: Goodspeed Publishing Co., 1889.